There are a number of different research types, each useful for different things. The four main types of research are Primary, Secondary, Qualitative and Quantitative.
Primary research is anything that you have done yourself, this could be anything such as Questionaires, surveys or even experiments.
Secondary research is something you have find out from another source, for example the information could be found in a book, magazine, the internet or direct from other people.
Quantitative research is more numbers than anything, for example if you wanted to find out how many people in the UK like to watch the news all it requires is a simple yes or no answer rather than an opinion.
Qualitative research is much more in depth, it focuses more on individuals and what they think or feel about a certain topic. It is much more opinion based.